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watch movies online in hd, present the battle of sinop, 1853 these four hours of the battledpassed quickly, like one minute. the tension reached its utmost point,when the enemy broke down and opened fire.

in the blink of an eye the sky, thewater, and the land were became red as flame and blood. that was amagnificent victory of the imperial fleet. the entire world witnessed againthe decisiveness and courage of the russian warriors. it seemed thatthe black sea would be safe forever. it only remained to wait till the seabecomes calm, the smoke from the fires disperses, and it would be safeagain to approach the home coast, the bay of sevastopol. only one person, the winner, a famousadmiral, nakhimov, standing on the deck of empress maria, understood: this wasonly the beginning of a terrible and

merciless world war. this war is most oftencalled the crimean war. but the crimean battles, includingthe famous defense of sevastopol, are only a part of a greater war. the warfare embraced vast territories,from the baltic sea and arctic to the caucasus and the pacific ocean. the war was waged on the landsthat were remote from each other, its players were pursuing global goals. with every new step the ideologicalstruggle was growing more intense.

these factors are signs of a world war. that was namely the reason why thecrimean war of the mid-19th century was called the zero world war. it became a kind of a rehearsal for theupcoming first and second world wars. zero world war episode 1 london, 1844 on june 1, 1844 in london, at thethames quay, three-time gunfire saluted the arrival of three steamboats.

an imperial flag was wavingon one of them, cyclops. it meant that russian czarnicholas i was on board. the british capital welcomednicholas with a pompous reception. the russian emperor was surroundedby a crowd of admirers whenever and wherever he went. confident glance, impeccablemanners and most significantly, a knight nobility breathed by everygesture he made. the morning post. taking part in official events,the russian czar didn’t forget even for a moment about themain purpose of his visit.

during his meeting with britain’sprime minister sir robert peel, nicholas shed light onthe interests of his state. he didn’t doubt thesincerity of his vis-a-vis. getting control of the bosporusand dardanelles, the straits between the black sea and the mediterraneansea, has been the most important goal of the russian diplomacy sincethe time of catherine the great. taking the straits would eliminate themilitary threat from the black sea coast and facilitate thesouth russian sea trade. nicholas i understood: as long as thestraits are not under the russian control,

his empire will be vulnerable. andbosporus and dardanelles had belonged to the ottoman empirefor many centuries. the ottoman empire emerged inthe end of the 13th century. it reached its height in 1453, afterthe seizure of the capital of byzantium, constantinople. at the moment of itsgreatest prosperity, it included the countries of near east and north africa, greece,the crimea, and the balkan lands. in the middle of the 19th century theottoman empire was in the state of decay, being shaken by national revolts and losingits lands in various parts of the world. it was not without a reason thatnicholas i called the ottoman empire

“the sick man of europe.” different revoltswere taking place in its different parts. it was indeed close to collapse. that is why in his conversation withthe british premier, the russian emperor immediately got to the core. “the collapse of the ottoman empire isinevitable, but russia doesn’t claim to any part of its territory.” nicholas was speaking so excitedly thatsir robert suggested that he stepped back from the window, becausesomeone could hear his words. the emperor made several steps towardsthe center of the chamber, and said

with utmost clarity, “if the ottomanthrone falls for any external reasons, “i will never allow constantinople tobecome a british or french territory.” the english prime minister and therussian czar came to an agreement: if the ottoman empire collapses,britain and russia will together discuss the plan to divide it. as a sign of hisgood intentions, sir robert shook hands with nicholas. however the partiesdidn’t sign any papers during the meeting. nicholas was an open person. hesincerely considered the english as his partners and believed that agentlemen’s agreement would be enough. but the british government, which didn’tconfirm a union with russia on paper,

left freedom of maneuver for itself.the thing is that in the relations between the countries therewere numerous hidden problems. in 1832 the share of england inrussia’s export made 73 percent, russian share in englishexport was 41 percent. raw materials were exported fromrussia, and ready produce was imported. it was a matter of vital concern forbritain to preserve this state of things. but it started to change. in 1825 through 1845 the import ofa variety of machines and equipment to russia increased by nearly 30times, and the number of factory workers

and industrial companies doubled. numerous textile factories were opened,and the import of raw cotton increased by 280 percent. railways andmotorways were being constructed, and along with the steamboatconnection, they linked the developing industrial centers. banks and insurancecompanies received tax subsidies, and the currency rateof ruble was stable. england’s prime minister sir robertpeel invited russian ambassador von brunnow and tried to persuadehim, “russia by its nature is meant to be a rural, rather than amanufacture country.” in other words,

the british premier without anyshade of embarrassment suggested that russia should refuse from thevery idea of economic development. at that time russian merchants wereactively trading domestic products on the shore of the caspian sea, in persiaand the asian territory of turkey. not only were they competing with theenglish, but they were often successful. from the british point of view, thisrussian expansion had to be stopped at any cost. on the 9th of june thethames was overcrowded. his majesty appeared to the strainsof the farewell naval salute.

once his majesty boarded the vessel, a small row – boat witha lonely oarer inside approached it. the oarer brought a sack of straw, foreverybody knew the russian tsar liked to sleep on a straw-stuffedmatrass. the daily news. nicholas left for his homeland inperfect airs. he thought he had fulfilled his mission. now, when two most powerfulstates in the world, russia and britain, agreed to act together, hehad nothing to worry about. only about his daughter, alexandra,adini, as she was called by her family. since march she was feeling unwell,but before the emperor’s departure

her condition improved. so,everything was supposed to be fine. when the black eagle, the emperor’sship, disappeared behind the horizon, a british schooner with several hundredkilos of gunpowder was ready to depart. the load was heading to the caucasusto support the highlanders in their war against the russian army. nicholas spent only two monthswith his daughter – died in august, saying only two wordsbefore her death, “be happy.” the peace with britain won’tpersist even for 10 years. the war between the two greatpowers was predetermined at the very

moment when the english prime ministerswore allegiance to the russian emperor. warsaw, 1848 the english worried not onlyabout russia’s economic growth. europe remembered russia’s power, whenin march 1814 the triumphant russian army, after defeating napoleon,went across the champs-elysees. and now the russian army was again ineurope. in 1846 a revolution took place in the austrian empire. emperorferdinand abdicated the throne in favor of his son. 18-year-oldfranz-joseph came to power. hungary rose in revolt soon. thehungarian rebels gathered an army,

pronounced the fall of the habsburgsand defeated the governmental forces. franz-joseph i was born on august18, 1830. an emperor of austria, king of hungary, king of bohemia,king of croatia and slavonia, king of galicia and lodomeria. duringthe 70-year-long reign of franz-joseph, the austrian empire went through a lot.having inherited a weakened country, franz-joseph managed to strengthen it,but at the end of the emperor’s life austria was totally defeated onthe fields of the world war i. as a result it collapsed. franz-josephdied on november 21, 1916 at the age of 86. franz-joseph came to russianwarsaw, where nicholas i was staying,

kissed the russian czar’shand and begged him for help. nicholas treated the young emperoras his son and agreed to give him military assistance. several dayslater he threw 100,000 soldiers against the hungarians under the commandof field-marshal paskevich. paskevich ivan fedorovich, countof yerevan, was born in 1782. he started his career during the reignof paul i, and at the age of 18 became his aid-de-camp. a hero of the patrioticwar of 1812, russo-persian and russo-turkish wars. he commandedthe conquering of the highlanders in north caucasus and the suppressionof the polish rebellion, later he

was appointed the namestnik(viceroy) of the kingdom of poland. he was a front nameof emperor nicholas i. in june 1849 four corps of therussian army entered the territory of the austrian empire. the army underpaskevich’s command energetically advanced in all directions, surroundingthe forces of the rebels step by step. on august 13, the hungarianrebellion army capitulated. paskevich sends a message to nicholas,“hungary is at the feet of your majesty.” the russian czar saved the austrianempire from collapse and didn’t demand anything in return. franz-joseph’sgratitude was enough for him.

during her visit to the parliament,her majesty queen victoria had to go through a couple ofquite a diaagreeable moments. although her majesty couldn’tgive the answer to the question if tsar nicoaly is stillconsidered our ally or not, it looks like the answer is obvious: nowthat this country has put its boots on the austrian ground, russia becomes a realthreat to our security as well. the times saint-petersburg, 1853 it was then that russia receivedthe name of “europe’s gendarme.” nicholas didn’t see the fear andirritation of the european states.

in this situation he decided to return tothe dialogue with the british government. in january 1853 the russianemperor met with english ambassador hamilton seymour. seymour was listeningto the details of secret of plan of division of the ottoman empire, proposedby nicholas, in respectful silence. according to this plan, england wouldget egypt and the island of crete. russia, additionally to the protectorateover the danube principalities of moldavia and walachia, would getunder its control the slavonic lands, serbia and bulgaria. the thorny issueof the straits wasn’t broached directly. before saying goodbye to the ambassador,nicholas said that he trusted the british

government completely and that hewasn’t asking for any obligations or agreements, “this is a free exchangeof opinions, and if necessity arises, a word of gentleman.” seymour was so depressed by thescale of russian emperor’s plans that he stumbled and fell, whenhe was leaving the office. nicholas kindly smiled and helped theenglish ambassador rise to his feet. in his plan, nicholas sincerely triedto consider the interests of britain. however, the english werenot glad to hear his offer. to stop russia, they secretly decidedto defend turkey’s sovereignty,

even with arms, if therewould be such a need. in 1838 the english government imposedon turkey the unequal trade agreement, according to which britain got aserious advantage in customs fees. as a result, a stream of englishmanufactured goods flushed to turkey. they were so cheap that the localmanufacturers went bankrupt, because they couldn’t stand the competition. to keepthe country’s sinking economy afloat, the ottoman minister of finance on aregular basis kept going to beg for loans to london and paris stock exchanges. that brought turkey evendeeper into economic slavery.

in those years charles stratford canningwas carrying out the british policy in constantinople. charles stratford canning was a youngerson of a london trader of irish origin. he was born in 1786. he was appointedambassador to constantinople in 1842 and soon started to implement a criticalinfluence on the home and foreign policy of the ottoman empire. constantinople, 1853 they said about canning, “this man isable to fall out with his own sandwich.” the ambassador’s assistants kepttheir hands on the door knob,

to run out of the office as soon asthey felt that he was getting angry. his arrogant look and majesticposture were enough to make the turks respect him. the tiniest disagreementwith the plans of the great ambassador, “great elci” as they called him, couldresult in immediate resignation for the ministers and state officials.when canning entered, the great vizier of the ottoman empirebecame speechless. canning was obsessed with the ideaof british hegemony in the world. he didn’t have any kind feelings eitherfor russia or personally for nicholas i, who in his time refused his candidaturefor an ambassador in saint-petersburg.

but there was another europeanpolitician who held grudge against emperor nicholas. north of france, 1846 in the fortress of ham, located in thenorth of france, the repair works were in full swing. the prisoners of thisfortress were not considered as people at all: diseases and death were considereda normal thing. an attempt of escape was equal to a suicide. the prisonersincluded a man who was sentenced to life imprisonment for theattempt of conquest of power. he dreamt of grandeur and believed indestiny, although often went too far in his

games with the fate. at that time he,as usual, was waiting for a chance. and he got such a chance. charles louis-napoleon bonaparte wasborn in 1808 to the younger brother of napoleon i, king of holland louisbonaparte and his wife, hortense de beauharnais, napoleon’s adopteddaughter. raised in the splendid court of his uncle in paris, hedidn’t know his father. after bonaparte was thrown down andthe dynasty of bourbons came to power, louis-napoleon’s mother had to leavefrance and was wandering across europe, till she settled in switzerland. unableto obtain any education, louis-napoleon

became a military serviceman. paris, 1848. elysee palace. louis napoleon perceived the change ofhis destiny as the universal injustice. he declared himself the legal heirof bonaparte’s empire and decided to seize the throne. with this aim, witha group of his supporters, he secretly entered france. he was holding adomesticated eagle. according to the intent, at the moment of recognizing louis-napoleonthe emperor, the bird was supposed to rise above his head. but the firstmilitary patrol detained louis-napoleon, and soon he found himself inpicardie, the castle of ham.

six years later he escaped. it was not long before themoment of his triumph arrived. in 1848 the bourbons dynastywas thrown down, and france was declared a republic. louis napoleonwas elected its first president. but, according to the constitution, thepresident didn’t have the right to be elected for the second term. knowinglouis-napoleon, there was no doubt that he would find a wayto bypass the constitution. on december 2, on the anniversaryof crowning napoleon bonaparte, his nephew accomplished a coup d’etat.he dismissed the national assembly,

cruelly suppressed the resistance andimplemented in the country a regime of personal power, and a year laterlouis-napoleon declared himself emperor napoleon iii. soon the ex-prisonerwould take part in the destinies of the countries of europe, but atthat moment his emperor’s title had to be recognized byother european states. the coup d’etat became a directchallenge for entire europe: the bonaparte dynasty had beenexcluded from the line of succession by the decision of thewien congress in 1815. however, the european states andmembers of the ruling dynasties

recognized louis napoleonas a legal monarch. only nicholas i caused a diplomaticscandal. in his greeting letter he called napoleon iii not his “dear brother,” asit was required according to the protocol, but only his “dear friends.” in sucha way he made louis napoleon understand that he didn’t consider anemperor equal to himself. when louis-napoleon read theletter, he was extremely outraged. from that moment on he saw in nicholasi his personal enemy and waited eagerly for a chance to take revenge. “it is time to make the blood runfaster in our veins and take revenge

for the defeat of 1812. only after francewipes away the stain of that retreat, it can bring back its pride. militaryvictories are what the french nation needs.” russia was a perfect enemy: two manyenvied it, too many were afraid of it. besides, louis-napoleon wanted tobreak the old anti-french alliance. choosing the russian empire ashis enemy, he could firmly count on england’s sympathy. he only had tofind a reason for an open conflict. and he did find it, again in the east. to win popularity in the country,louis staked on the clergy. the church was showered withall kinds of gifts and subsidies.

the catholic priests even returnedto schools, from which they were turned out by the great french such a way, bonaparte’s heir, a non-religious person, received afull support of the catholic churches. and they dreamt to return control oftwo greatest churches of christianity, the jerusalem and bethlehem churches.these churches have had many different owners. muslim turks for bribes gave thekeys to different christian communities. in the 18th century the rights tothe sacred places were again owned by the orthodox christians. few peoplewere upset about this in france: atheism was popular at that time.

but louis-napoleon suddenly decided tostart a struggle for the sacred places. he sent a note with a demand to returnthe keys from the bethlehem church to the catholics tothe ottoman government. turks hesitated, trying to please bothsides, russia and france. however, louis was ready to take any measures tomake sultan abdulmecid tcooperate with the catholic church. abdulmecid was the 31st sultan of theottoman empire. he was born in 1823. he was an older son of the previoussultan, mahmud ii. he came to power, when he was 16. he fathered 11sons and 15 daughters from 22 wives.

the affairs of the empire were aburden for him, and he often preferred entertainment events, which consisted ofballs, banquets, and theater performances. abdulmecid since childhood was fragileand sickly. he mother, afraid that the new sultan, like his father, wouldbecome addicted to wine, commanded to destroy the wine reserves. over 50bottles of the drink, forbidden for muslims, were taken to the coast of the bosporusand broken against the wall of its quay. the sultan’s mother decided that numerousconcubines would be a good substitute for her son, so she startedto gather a harem for him. so it went that way. the sultan ruled theempire for the most part from his harem.

to impress this ruler, french 90-gun frigatecarl the great approached the coast of the ottoman capital. abdulmecid preferrednot to irritate such a sea power. “without doubt, this day will beremembered in history: on december 11, 1852 the keys from the bethlehem churchwere granted to latin patriarch giuseppe valerge. isn’t it too soon tocelebrate? russia won’t give up. it is a matter of life and death forher. we wish paris knows this well.” (journal des debats) what happened in bethlehem wasa real challenge for petersburg. orthodox believers around the worldwere under protection of the russian

emperor. nicholas picked up theglove, tactically thrown to him by napoleon, and sent extraordinary andplenipotentiary ambassador, prince menshikov to constantinople. menshikov alexandersergeevich. was born in 1787. an adjutant general, marineminister of the russian empire, governor-general of finland. he wasa great grandson of peter i’s closest brother-in-arms, alexander menshikov.he took part in russo-turkish wars, the patriotic war of 1812.he had a violent temper. menshikov was ordered by nicholas toreturn all rights to the orthodox church

on the territory of the ottoman empire.besides, the orthodox christians were supposed to be granted variousprivileges, and abdulmecid had to confirm russia’s right to theirprotection in written form. indeed, brave warrior menshikov wasnot going to beat around the bush with turks. subtle flattering and covertintrigues were not in his character. when he got to the bosporus coast onthe corvette gromonosets, menshikov demanded the great vizier, the sultan’sson-in-law, to meet him personally at the gates of the palace. of course,this unheard-of demand was rejected. but the prince continued to violatethe rules of diplomatic etiquette.

with his retinue, he came to thegovernmental palace wearing a coat and a hat, instead of his paradeuniform with all regalia. no one was ready for suchwillfulness of the russian ambassador. no one, except for canning. the menshikov’s crankeries never ended. in order to make the princebow his head to abdal-mejid, the height of the doorway inthe reception hall was reduced. but once the trick was found out, menshikov turned his head, bowed andentered the hall, showing to the sultan

one of his less flattering sides.a height of inprudence. the daily news. at first such behavior yielded its fruit:the issue of the rights of the orthodox church was resolved in favor ofrussia. but that was only the first part of menshikov’s mission. in a whilethe prince presented for the ottoman government a document, accordingto which nicholas i was acknowledged the protector of all the orthodoxparishioners. the turks were not excited to hear about such a prospect, because the sultanwas traditionally called the “protector of the christians,” who made one-third ofthe population in the ottoman empire. “don’t make any concessions to russia,stop any contacts with such messengers as

menshikov and, finally, stop being afraidof this bear!” abdulmecid learned this canning’s phrase by made him feel calmer. he was especially warmed up by thepromise given by his british friend, “the russians won’t dare to start a war.if it happens, britain won’t stand aside.” so menshikov got a refusal. the princewas outraged. after long contemplations, he ordered the employees of the embassyto pack their things and leave for russia, taking all the documentsand the embassy’s archives. for three days, gromonosetsremained off the harbor. the extraordinary ambassador was waitingfor the turks to come to their senses.

but they didn’t. the ship raised anchor.the prince was leaving constantinople, although he hadn’tfulfilled his mission. if stratford canning didn’t intrude,everything could have ended differently. but now, to make the sultan acceptrussia’s terms, nicholas had to use force. he ordered the 80,000-people russianarmy to take the danube principalities, moldavia and walachia. but thatdidn’t mean the beginning of the war. nicholas i was till the last momentsure that if he would have to wage war, it would be only against the weakenedottoman empire. he continued to consider britain his ally and was sure that louis- napoleon wouldn’t dare to stand against

russia alone. but there were no peopleto give proper advice to the emperor. chancellor of the russian empire karlnesselrode avoided arguing with nicholas. after serving as the foreign ministersince 1816, close to the end of his career, nesselrode was clearly tired of theservice and gave a considerable part of his duties to his assistants. only themeetings with the emperor made him leave his main passion, growing flowers. he oftenlistened to reports in his greenhouse. namely inattentive nesselrode overlookedthe secret coalition with the two most important european states, britainand france. the events in the mainland were developing rapidly. nonetheless,there remained a chance to avoid the war.

at first it seemed that therussian emperor achieved his goal. nicholas received an offer: in exchangefor the concession of turkey, he was demanded to withdraw the russianforces from the danube principalities. and he was ready to sign this documentunder one condition: the sultan wouldn’t amend it. however,abdulmecid, backed by experienced manipulator canning, refused totake the compromise. on september 22, turkey declared war on russia. nicholas wanted to make a bold leapthrough the balkan mountains and approach constantinople. then, as the emperorthought, he would impose siege

on the bosporus. he considered thatthe next step would be recognition of serbia’s independence. resolute attacksof the russian army could have ended the war before the intrusion of europe.but things took a different turn. austria, which seemed to be a trustedally, suddenly turned away from russia. paskevich was telling the emperorthat that was a deadlock situation: if the russian army advanced toconstantinople, the austrians with full force would attack its flank, and thenthey would be joined by the english and the french. nicholas said, “jan sobieski was thedumbest polish king, and i am the dumbest

russian emperor. sobieski – becausehe saved austria from the turks in 1683, and i – because i saved itfrom the hungarians in 1848.” paskevich was well aware that after theend of the war of 1812, the russian army hadn’t been rearmed. in the armythe main emphasis was made not on military tactics, but on holdingparades. the army wasn’t mobile enough. and now the danube army was flailingaround. instead of a resolute advancement, the corps were staying on the sameplace till the turks started to advance. in autumn 1853, active armed hostilitiesbegan in the balkans. the turkish army with 14,000 bayonets, under the commandof omer pasha, moved to the north

bank of the danube and ousted therussians from the village of oltenita. the russian soldiers were enthusiastic:finally they had a real task. they spent the night around thebonfire, having excited conversations: they were recalling the past events,telling jokes, singing cheerful songs. in the morning, the brigade of only6,000 people, although outnumbered by the enemy, started an assaulton the turkish reinforcements. from the high land the enemy showeredthe storming troops with shells and bullets. however, the russian forces,having lost about 1,000 officers and soldiers of lower ranks, launched an attack spite of the favorable position of

the enemy, the turks lost twiceas many people as russians. the turks, who hadn’t expect such avigor, in panic started to leave the fortifications and get ready to leaveto the southern bank of the danube. the russian soldierstook the high point. and suddenly they heard an order toretreat. they didn’t believe what they heard: the victory was in their hands.but they had to obey the order. the turks were no less shocked,they even thought that the retreat of the russians was a kind of militarytrickery. there were rumors among the soldiers that there weretraitors among the leadership.

but there was no treachery. thecommanders didn’t risk unfolding active advancement. chief commander countpaskevich was expecting a betrayal of the austrians and their attackon the flank of the russian army. that is why the advancementin the balkans was meaningless. the main battle of this war wastaking place in the diplomatic front. and it was already lost. unlike the top commanders, ordinarysoldiers and officers wanted to fight and showed miracles of self-sacrifice.during the second battle, to prevent the enemy from the taking the weaponsthey had left with them, a decision

was made to take the ravine. but theyfailed to fulfill this task several times: before the walls there was a deep ditch.there was neither descent, nor bridge. then private nikifor dvornik jumped intothe ditch, stood across it and, bending, shouted, “guys, go over me! it will befaster!” when about 40 people crossed the ditch on the backs of their friendsand took the position abandoned by the enemies, nikofor dvornik asked topull him up and rushed into the center of the battle. the war against the turks was takingplace not only in the danube region. there was warfare in the caucasustoo. on the night of october 16,

the ottoman forces launched an attack:5,000 turks landed on the russian territory and attacked the border post in westerngeorgia, guarded by several dozens of men with two main guns. the russianunit was fighting back desperately, but nearly all of the servicemen wereslaughtered. turkish bashibazouks were especially ardent. bashibazouk is translated from turkishas “crazy head” or “free-headed.” those were special troops of the ottomanarmy which were recruited from the aggressive tribes of asia minor andalbania. they were known for their extreme cruelty, proneness to looting,and total lack of discipline.

bashibazouks organized ademonstrative punishment for russians: they crucified local state official,cut of a priest’s head, and tortured a pregnant woman. “the ottoman forces show excellenttraining and high battle qualities. after the victory in oltenita, a newtriumph followed, now in the caucasus: the impregnable fortress, aborderline stronghold was taken. abdulmecid can now be proud of its army.russia, tremble in fear!” (le figaro) however, the turks didn’t please theireuropean friends with similar successes, which were shamelessly exaggerated. atthe first serious battle with the russian

army they were mercilessly crushed. on november 14, prince bebutov with7,000 infantry men and 2,800 cavalry men started to pursue the 36,000-peoplearmy of ahmet pasha, which had crossed the russian border, avoiding battles.three days later the turks were returning to the ottoman territory and made ahalt. bebutov ordered the troops to attack the enemy, they took provisionenough for five days and carriages for the wounded. the ottoman empire,village baskadiklar, 1853 when ahmet pasha learned about theapproaching russian forces, he didn’t

believe at first, and then he told hisclose people, “the russians must be either crazy, or totally drunkwith their disgusting vodka.” he ordered to make ready the ropeswhich were supposed to be used for tying the generals and officers taken prisonersand then sending them to constantinople – ahmet-pasha didn’t doubt that he woulddefeat the small corps of the russians. early on november 19 bebutov’s forcesapproached the enemy’s position and embattled at the distance of two noon the artillery started shelling. an hour later bebutov moved four battalionsto bypass the turks from the right flank. they went down to the ravine,ascend across the opposite slope and,

entering the enemy’s battery,manage to seize several cannons. the turks, impressed by the bravery ofthe russians, sent their reserve forces to face them. then prince bebutovpersonally led two reserve companies to the battle. the turks started to leavetheir positions. it took the russian forces, numbering four times less, twohours to make the ottoman army retreat. when the fight was over, the woundedwere taken from the battlefield. a russian grenadier, whose arm wastorn off by a scab, refused to take help and pointed at the turkish soldierlying next to him, saying, “help him. his wounds are worse.”

1,100 russians were killedor wounded during the battle. the turks lost over 6,000. russianstook from the enemy 24 cannons, a flag, and a camp with the tents and provision. having defeated the ottoman army,the russian forces in the caucasus could spend the winter undisturbed,whereas the enemy was depressed. but turkey posed a threat to russianot only from the mainland. the theater of war included also the black sea. since october the ottoman fleet waspreparing to send its landing troops to the caucasus. the russian blacksea squadron with admiral nakhimov

at the helm was supposed to prevent this.when the admiral finally got permission to attack the enemy, he sent the steamboatbessarabia to do the reconnaissance. several days later the steamboatbrought back the message that the turkish squadron was gathering in the bay ofthe town of sinop. nakhimov started to get ready for a big battle. pavel nakhimov was born in 1802 tothe family of not wealthy landowner in vyazma district of smolenskgubernia. at the age of 13 he entered the navy cadet corps. he took partin the world cruise on frigate kreiser under the command of legendary admirallazarev and was one of his favorite

students. he took part in the battle ofnavarino in 1827, when the turkish fleet was crushed. since 1834 he wasserving at the black sea fleet. the black sea, 1853. the bay of sinop nakhimov didn’t have a family, hedidn’t have friends on the mainland, and he felt at home only when hewas in the open sea on a warship. when he was a lieutenant, he was nearlykilled, trying to save a sailor who fell into the sea. after becoming an admiral,he helped retired sailors, their wives and children. in sevastopol therewas no person who didn’t know or disliked nakhimov. he remembered allof the sailors he had served together.

the sailors were proud of their specialstatus. no surprise that with such an attitude to people under command, the discipline,the training, and morale at the russian fleet were many times higher than inthe land army. the battle of sinop was an absolute proof of this. havingapproached with his squadron to the bay of sinop, nakhimov found a unit of turkishships, including seven frigates, three corvettes, two steamships, andseveral boats of other types. this fleet was under protection of sixcoastal batteries. nakhimov decided to block the port. three 84-gun battleships,empress maria, chesma, and rostislav stood at the entry to the harbor. theadmiral was not delivering a battle,

as he was waiting for thereinforcement from sevastopol. on november 16 nakhimov was joinedby the squadron of rear admiral novosilsky: three 120-gun battleships,paris, great prince constantine, and three saints. two frigatescame as well, kagul and kulevchi. now, when the russian squadronoutnumbered the enemy in terms of guns, nakhimov decided to attack. the bay of sinop, 1853 on the night of november 18 itwas raining, the wind was squally. the weather didn’t change in themorning. nakhimov was waiting.

the tension was growing. the sailorsand officers could see the enemy from their ships. only the whistleof the wind broke the silence. the first shot was made. the turkscouldn’t stand this any longer. it was followed by the firing fromall turkish boats and batteries. nakhimov led the ships ahead. they startedan artillery battle with the turkish boats and the coastal batteries. at first,the ship constantine got into a dangerous situation – it was surroundedand came under furious firing, but chesma helped constantine out. frigatenavek-bahra was blasted, and the debris fell on the coastal battery, breakingit down. turkish steamboat-frigate taif

escaped the battlefield. the artillery ofthe enemy fails to drown any russian ship. however, the fire from the russianboats, armed with the modern bombing guns, destroyed theturkish ships one by one. the panicking turks were rushing aboutthe burning decks and jumped into water. but they didn’t find any rescue there either,the debris of the ships were falling and covering them. the burning turkish shipsset fire to sinop and it brightly lit the bay of sinop. it was lightas during the day, hot as in hell. the fire was everywhere. fourhours later the battle will be over, and a day later entire europewill learn about the battle.

later the press of the european countrieswill write that the russians purposely set the city on fire. of course, thisis a lie. sinop, an ancient greek city, at that time was divided into twoparts, the turkish one and the greek one. during the attack of the russian fleetthe orthodox greeks stayed on their half. they were not afraid of the russiansand extinguished the fires on time. but the turkish part was empty, andthere was simply no one to extinguish the fire set by theburning debris of the ships. it took only four hours to destroy the entireturkish fleet and the coastal batteries. 3,000 turkish soldiers, sailors, andofficers were either killed or wounded.

around 200 people were taken prisoners.37 and 235 russians were killed and wounded, respectively. after the battle nakhimov was lookingfor a long time at the bullet-ridden st. andrew’s flag. the admiral was theonly person who didn’t share the common joy. nakhimov understood that theeuropean states wouldn’t stand aside. a great war was inevitable. the news about the brilliant victorymade the russian hearts beat faster. all sevastopol residents met theadmiral with endless “hooray” shouts. czar nicholas, encouraged bynakhimov’s outstanding heroic feat,

awarded him with st. george’sorder of the second degree. meanwhile in london the leader of theliberal party john russell stated from the tribune of the house of commons,“we need to tear the teeth from the bear’s jaws. as long as his fleet andnavy arsenal in the black sea are safe and sound, constantinople won’t be safe,and there won’t be any peace in europe.” napoleon iii sent to the russian emperoran ultimatum, to withdraw the forces from the danube principalities andstart negotiations with the turks. otherwise, russia riskedstaying absolutely alone. on february 9, russia rejected theultimatum and announced the break

of diplomatic relations with britainand france. on march 15, britain declared war on the russian empire. a daylater it was joined by france. on march 30, empress alexandra sawher husband tearful in his office. for a few seconds nicholas was lookingat the wife, as if looking for support. finally his face showed determination.the emperor took a pen and signed a manifesto, by which he declared war ontwo western states, france and britain. the diplomatic games wereover. a great war was beginning. the zero world war.


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